Jai Sang motorcycles and spare parts company located on Church Street, Georgetown on Tuesday introduced a new brand of motorcycles to the Guyanese public.The Moab brand of motorcyclesAccording to the owner of the company, Christopher King, the Moab brand of motorcycles is made and assembled in China.Sporting an impressive muscular look, the high-performance machines are said to be top rated within its class and environmentally friendly with a 125cc air-cooled, EFI single-cylinder engine.The efficient fuel economy and overall performance are amazing features of the cycles, with a guaranteed 370 miles between fill-ups from the 13-litre tank.King assured that any bike purchased came with a one-year warranty.
Source:https://www.thelancet.com/ Mar 22 2019In an article published today in Lancet Planetary Health, a team from the Ifakara Health Institute (IHI) and Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine (LSTM), provides evidence that even window screens with no insecticide suppressed mosquito populations and dramatically reduced malaria prevalence in the Tanzanian city of Dar es Salaam.The study team has also worked with local and national government partners for over a decade to develop practical affordable implementation systems for community-based application of environmentally-friendly biological insecticides that selectively kill mosquito larvae in puddles, drains, river fringes, ponds and other sundry stagnant water bodies. Dr Prosper Chaki, who co-led the study, says “We are pleased that our efforts over all these years have culminated in government-funded scale up of larviciding, first across all of Dar es Salaam, and then to all major urban centres in Tanzania. Also, our government has invested domestic treasury funding into construction of a manufacturing plant for biological control products in Kibaha, just outside the city, which is now fully operational.” However, previous external analyses of the first large-scale pilot in Dar es Salaam indicated that larviciding only reduced malaria prevalence by 21%. Furthermore, this previous analysis3 provided no explanation for the much larger reductions of malaria prevelance that occurred over the study period, which steadily declined from >28% in 2004 to <2% by 2008.The IHI and LSTM team therefore re-assessed these epidemiological data to see how much of this remarkable 97% drop in malaria prevalence could be attributed to other factors. Only the coverage of complete window screening consistently increased to levels high enough to have any meaningful impact. While only 40% of houses had complete window screening at the start of the study in 2004, coverage had more than doubled to 86% by 2008. This surprisingly rapid scale up of window screening coverage was unplanned and spontaneous, implemented by households at their own expense, using flexible plastic screening which they found easy to install. This steady rise in window-screening coverage was statistically associated with a 92% reduction of malaria prevalence amongst residents, accounting for most of the spectacular overall decline in malaria prevalence. "Good-quality housing is a crucial factor in reducing malaria transmission across the spectrum of malaria endemicity." says Dr Emmanuel Chanda at the World Health Organization Regional Office for Africa in Brazzaville, Congo. In his supporting editorial, he continues "Killeen and colleagues' findings fall within the context of research efforts to provide hard evidence for the public health value of house screening.". Interestingly, mosquito biting rates were also reduced by as much as 92%, and impact was greatest for the most efficient malaria vector species that depend heavily on human blood. "People who live with mosquitoes protect themselves by taking advantage of any products they can access and afford." says Dr Nicodem Govella, a co-author of the study who also develops new methods for measuring just how much mosquitoes prefer and depend on human blood. He continues "Here is an encouraging example from the citizens of Dar es Salaam, who spent millions of dollars of their own money to protect their houses and families, but also protected their neighbours by making life tougher for mosquitoes".Related StoriesSouthern Research team aims to discover new, safer antimalarial medicinesHuman liver cell protein aids development of malaria parasite, study findsMalaria free status for Algeria and ArgentinaIn addition to revealing the remarkable contribution of window screens to this near-collapse of malaria transmission, this re-analysis also yielded a more encouraging estimate for the impact of regular larvicide application. Larviciding halved malaria prevalence by reducing malaria vector abundance, consistent with subsequent evaluations of scale up across the remainder of the city.In addition to demonstrating that mosquito-proofed window screening may have far greater impacts upon malaria than previously thought, these observations also challenge the view that it is too expensive and impractical for widespread use in poor countries. "While Dar es Salaam is a big city, we think our observations also have important implications for rural Africa.", says Dr Gerry Killeen who led the study. "Historically, most rural African houses have been made with mud and sticks for the walls and grass thatch for the roofs. Mosquitoes readily entered through the eave gaps between the wall and roof, which were left open for ventilation because these simple house designs lacked windows. However, Africa is changing faster than ever before, and that picture is rapidly becoming outdated across much of the continent. Houses ventilated by windows and built with bricks, timber and iron sheets are increasingly common even in rural Africa. The people who live with mosquitoes and malaria invest as much as they can in better houses, which are easier to protect with readily-available netting materials". "This study shows how the relatively simple intervention of installing window screens was taken up beyond a research study setting and led to a remarkable reduction in malaria infections in the wider community. These findings demonstrate that it can take more than a decade for research to have a real impact on the communities that need it most", says Branwen Hennig, Senior Portfolio Lead at the Wellcome Trust one of the major sponsors for the study. The authors also note that ongoing housing improvements across rural Africa are closely associated with declining malaria burden and that even bigger reductions may be possible if they could be treated with insecticides.
Reviewed by Kate Anderton, B.Sc. (Editor)Apr 16 2019A six-week transition period did not help wearers adjust to “maximal” running shoes, indicating that increased impact forces and loading rates caused by the shoe design do not change over time, a new study from Oregon State University – Cascades has found.The shoes, which feature increased cushioning, particularly in the forefoot region of the midsole, affect runners’ biomechanics, leaving them at increased risk of injury, said Christine Pollard, director of the Bend campus’s Functional Orthopedic Research Center of Excellence (FORCE) Lab and a co-author of the study.”These shoes may work for certain people, but right now we just don’t know who they are good for,” said Pollard, an associate professor of kinesiology at OSU-Cascades. “The findings suggest that people aren’t really changing the way they run in the shoes, even after a six-week transition, potentially leaving them at increased risk of injury.”The study was published recently in the American Journal of Sports Medicine. The lead author is J.J. Hannigan, a post-doctoral researcher in the FORCE Lab.Maximal shoes have been growing in popularity since being introduced in 2010. More than 20 varieties of maximal shoes are on the market, but little research has been conducted on the shoes to understand their effect on running biomechanics. Controlled studies, like the research at the FORCE Lab, help clinicians make science-based recommendations to runners.Researchers in the FORCE Lab previously conducted a study of people running in the shoes before and after a 5K treadmill run; the findings from that study suggested that the maximal shoes may increase impact force and loading rates, which indicate a greater risk of injury.The new study was designed to build on the previous research and see how a six-week transition to the maximal shoe might affect runners’ biomechanics.”We wanted to look beyond any novelty effect the shoe might have,” Pollard said. “It’s a very new area and we have a lot of work to do to understand how these shoes affect running mechanics.”Related StoriesSenate panel makes surprisingly fast work of ‘surprise medical bills’ packageExtremely strenuous exercise can overload the heart without increasing cardiac riskChildren living in the countryside have better motor skills than their peers in metropolitan areaThe researchers studied 20 runners, a mix of men and women, between the ages of 18 and 45, who ran at least 15 miles a week. The runners participated in two biomechanical testing sessions in the lab, each session about six weeks apart. They completed a series of running trials wearing maximal shoes and also wearing traditional running shoes.After the first testing session, the runners received a maximal shoe transition schedule to follow. They continued their regular running mileage but gradually increased the percent of their mileage run in the maximal shoe over the six-week period, with the last two weeks only in the maximal shoes.The results showed there were no changes in running mechanics over time in either type of shoes. The study did show increased impact forces and loading rates in the maximal shoe, supporting results of the earlier study. There was no difference in those biomechanics after the transition to the maximal shoes.”The concern in the maximal shoes is that you have this mass you’re repeatedly loading. How are you attenuating that?” Pollard said. “We also saw changes in ankle kinematics, or the angular movement in the joints. With the maximal shoes we saw prolonged eversion, which likely increases stress on the legs and could lead to injury.”More research is needed to understand how maximal shoes affect biomechanics, Pollard said. For now, runners and clinicians who work with runners should be cauti”We really don’t know enough to be recommending them,” said Pollard, who also is a licensed physical therapist. “If someone is going to try them out, I would suggest they try them out on a treadmill at a running store to see how they feel. How they feel then is how they’ll feel in six weeks.” Source:https://oregonstate.edu/
Reviewed by James Ives, M.Psych. (Editor)Jun 12 2019A new study by Imperial Brands, owners of leading vape brand blu, contributes to the increasing evidence base substantiating vaping’s harm reduction potential compared to smoking.The research, presented at the 58th annual meeting of the Society of Toxicology earlier this year, compared the in-vitro toxicological responses of a 3D model of human lung tissue to myblu vapour and cigarette smoke across a range of biological endpoints.Cells were repeatedly exposed to either 30, 60 or 90 puffs of vapour, smoke and air over 4 weeks, and the results were conclusive. While myblu vapour delivered significantly more nicotine compared to the cigarette smoke, it did not trigger any significant toxicological responses under test conditions.Related StoriesNew genetic marker linked to higher risk of premenopausal breast cancerResearchers develop new technique to enhance infection-fighting potential of natural chemicalsOmron donates cutting-edge laboratory to help UH engineering students gain real-world skillsArguably the most striking observation involved the cilia on the surface of the cells- mobile, hair-like structures that line the airways and lungs, helping keep them clear of mucus and dirt. After 4 weeks of repeated exposure to undiluted myblu vapour, there was no recorded decrease in either the number of cilia, or the number of ciliated cells. In fact, tissue integrity was indistinguishable from air control. The observations were in marked contrast to cigarette smoke’s negative impact on lung cells, even when diluted at 1:17 ratio.Dr Roman Wieczorek, Group Biological & Toxicological Laboratory Manager at Imperial Brands Science and study author, commented: “Utilising state-of-the-art in-vitro methodologies based on TT21C principles, we continue to investigate the mechanistic effects of our Next-Generation Product (NPG) portfolio to substantiate its harm reduction potential”.”Our ethical assays use cells derived from humans. This negates the need to test on animals, while targeting multiple endpoints of direct relevance to adult smokers.”Dr Grant O’Connell, Head of Scientific Affairs at Imperial Brands, added: “Our process of scientific substantiation focuses on all aspects of population level harm reduction, allowing us to develop robust scientific evidence packages that demonstrate the risk-reduced potential of our NGPs.”Unfortunately, media headlines based on misleading science containing non-realistic human exposures and extrapolated results continue to prove confusing and unhelpful at best and disastrous to the global public health agenda at worst.”Imperial Brands and blu urge public health bodies, regulators and journalists across the world to cut through the misleading, agenda-driven murk and help us in our mission to deliver something better for the world’s smokers.” Source:Imperial Brands